Strabismus (aka crossed eyes) is a condition were poor eye movement control causes the eyes to be misaligned and look at two objects simultaneously. Poor alignment of the eyes can be caused by nerve or eye muscle palsy or a large uncorrected hyperopic (i.e. "farsighted") prescription.
When the eyes are not working together, one eye may be looking in, out, up or down, and cause the individual to experience double vision. The same eye can be affected or the eye-turn can alternate between the eyes. The frequency of the eye-turn may also vary from constant to intermittent, and will most likely increase when the individual is fatigued or with prolonged near work.
Strabismus most often occurs in young children of a developmental age, but can occur in older children and adults. Children cannot "grow out" of strabismus and it is important they receive treatment as soon as possible. If left untreated, it can cause poor cosmesis, improper and painful neck posture in attempt to decrease or eliminate double vision, limited depth perception, or a permanent decrease and impaired vision (amblyopia) in one or both eyes.
Treatment for strabismus includes glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery. Depending on the cause of the strabismus, the correction of a large farsighted prescription with glasses or contacts can eliminate a strabismus. Prism can also be placed in glasses to alter the pathway of light entering the eye. There by, decreasing the amount of turning required by the eye to view an object or eliminate the strabismus completely. Vision therapy can be used to strengthen and reinforce proper eye-teaming and focusing as well and the connection between the brain and eyes. With appropriate exercise treatments, the eye muscles can strengthen themselves allowing proper eye alignment. If amblyopia occurs secondary to strabismus, patching and vision therapy may be required to improve vision in the affected eye. Surgery can alter muscle length and placement to align the eyes and improve cosmesis and function. However, vision therapy may be required post-surgery to improve functional coordination between the two eyes and prevent reversion to pre-surgical misalignment.
The diagnosis of strabismus can be made through a comprehensive eye exam. In the exam, the presence of strabismus is determined by obtaining proper patient history, evaluating the visual ability of each eye and both eyes together (visual acuity), testing eye-teaming skills and coordination, determination of refractive error, and complete health evaluation.
Color Vision Deficiency is a person's inability to distinguish certain shades of colors or, in more severe cases, any colors. The most common deficiency is with reds and greens, and less commonly blues and yellows. The inability to see any colors is rare and called Achromatopsia. The severity of a color deficiency can vary from mild to severe depending on its cause, and it can occur in two eyes or just one. If the deficiency is binocular it is most times an inherited trait; if it is monocular, it is likely due to an ocular injury or illness.
Diabetic retinopathy is the result of damage to the retina caused by diabetes and is the main cause of blindness in Americans 20-74 years old. 80% of all patients who have lived with diabetes for 10 years or more are affected by diabetic retinopathy. However, research has shown that 90% of these cases could be eliminated if the patient has regular treatment and monitoring of their eyes.
The retina is the layer of tissue inside of the eye. It absorbs light that enters through the front of the eye and transmits an image that is sent via nerve signals in the optic nerve to the brain. Retina has thousands of little blood vessels that not only nourish the tissue. In case of elevated blood sugar levels (like in patients with diabetes), these delicate blood vessels can sustain significant damage. In some cases they may become blocked completely, cutting off blood supply to the retina and causing vision loss. In response to the lack of blood, the body may try to form new blood vessels that are weak, leaky and can create retinal damage.
Generally early diabetic retinopathy may be treated by controlling blood sugar levels and close monitoring by an eye doctor. On the other hand, advanced diabetic retinopathy may prompt surgical treatment, such as laser treatment which aims to shrink abnormal blood vessels or stop them from leaking.
Most often, patients do not notice symptoms until damage to their retina is too severe, a big reason why people with diabetes should have regular eye exams. Early diagnosis and recognition of diabetic retinopathy and the proper timing of treatment can make the difference between good vision and blindness.
on important in learning and development, a comprehensive eye exam is strongly recommended for children before school begins to identify any possible color vision deficiencies.
Keratoconus is an ocular condition affecting the cornea, the clear front surface of the eye. It usually occurs in both eyes and in young adult males; however, it has been seen in both men and women and people of various ages. There is a possible undetermined genetic component to keratoconus, and similarly, it has been shown to be related to excessive amounts of eye-rubbing. It is characterized and usually diagnosed by corneal bulging and irregular amounts of astigmatism; both caused by ectasia or thinning of the central cornea. Vision is best corrected with the use of glasses or rigid gas-permeable contact lenses. Some surgical procedures are being utilized in the hopes of stabilizing the cornea and preventing any further progression. In severe cases, keratoconus can cause scarring with permanent loss of vision or need for corneal transplant.
The diagnosis of keratoconus can be made through a comprehensive eye exam. During the exam, the presence of keratoconus is determined by obtaining proper patient and family history, evaluating the visual ability of each eye and both eyes together (visual acuity), eye skills and coordination, determination of refractive error, and complete health evaluation.